Among the distinctive characteristics of early modern thought are new conceptions of retribution and social control. In this course, we shall examine a number of texts which reflect the diversity of philosophical and theological approaches to law and punishment, both human and divine. We begin with a consideration of pre-modern and/or non-western approaches to these issues. We then explore the various early modern reactions to and departures from these approaches, including the writings of Protestant thinkers and political philosophers before, during, and after the Enlightenment. Finally, we shall consider Foucault’s “normalization thesis” to see if it illuminates our understanding of early modern thought on punishment.