Technological developments have had such a fundamental impact on the environment that the geologists are now contemplating the idea that the planet might have entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, in which humans would be the main geophysical force at play. This course critically examines this debate by offering a historical survey of the impact of human technology on the environment, from prehistory to early 21st century. Attention will also be given as to how social, political, cultural, and economic factors have influenced this history.