At the time when the Holocaust recedes into history, the imperative to “never forget” acquires new urgency. In this course, we focus on various modes of talking about this traumatic historical period. Why did the Holocaust happen “in the middle of civilized Europe”? Who were the perpetrators? Does the word “Holocaust” refer only to the Nazi attempt to exterminate the Jewish people or should we also consider the experiences of different victim groups (e.g., the disabled, gay people, and the Roma people)? Did men and women experience the events differently because of their biological gender and the social gender norms at the time? Can horror be accommodated in language or represented by any other means? Is the Holocaust unique or should it be considered in comparison with other genocides? These and other questions will arise in this class from the examination of eye-witness accounts from the killing fields in the East, Holocaust diaries written in the ghettoes, memoirs written by survivors of the Nazi camps (including testimonies by the Sonderkommandos, members of the special work details), and perpetrators’ diaries, as well as works by historians and literary works written by the participants of the events. The course features guest lectures, including a talk by a Holocaust survivor, excerpts from films, documentaries, and video-taped testimony.